Skin types

We have talked about the structure of the skin in another article, so we will not dwell on it in detail here.


What are the main functions of the skin?

Healthy skin is a dynamic system that flexibly adapts to changing environmental conditions, such as:
  • adapts heat loss to the outside temperature;
  • regulates water loss depending on temperature and humidity – “under normal conditions” between 0.5 and 1 liter per day;
  • secretes salts (through the sweat glands) and lipid substances (sebum, “lipid mantle of the skin”);
  • serves as a barrier against foreign substances and microorganisms, including control of the pH level of the surface;
  • builds individual protection against stress caused by UV light;
  • protects against mechanical stress;
  • transmits pain, temperature, and tactile stimuli through nerves.

The difference in the appearance of skin types can be due to both genetic predisposition and the conditions of the environment in which we live, the diet and the stress to which we are subjected.


What skin types are there?

Each person is unique, and this does not only apply to character. There are many systems aimed at characterizing and classifying different skin types, but scientists have not reached a consensus. Broadly speaking, we can divide skin types into five types:

Normal skin has a smooth texture and a pink, flat surface with fine pores. There are no visible spots, oily or scaly areas. Sebum production, moisture content and exfoliation are well balanced.

– not too oily, not too dry; it feels the same in all areas
– there are some slight differences in pigmentation and tones
– there are no visible imperfections and the pores are almost invisible
– looks clean and smooth
– minimal amount of lines or wrinkles
– the skin does not feel dry, tight or greasy even at the end of the day

Oily skin is characterized by an increased amount of sebum on the surface due to the overactivity of the sebaceous glands. The skin is shiny and dense, often with enlarged pores. It is prone to blackheads and other blemishes, occurs more often in men than women, and mostly affects adolescents and younger people.

– has a shiny appearance due to sebum
– large and visible pores
– presence of acne, spots and blackheads

Acne-prone / Reactive skin – With this skin type, sebum production is not well regulated, as a result of which the skin turns out to be a favorable environment for the development of bacterial species such as Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Malassezia furfur. Thus, the microbial balance shifts in favor of the harmful microflora and leads to the appearance of pimples, inflammation and subsequent hyperpigmentation of the affected areas.

Dry skin is characterized by a lack of moisture in its stratum corneum, which leads to tightness and even peeling. The skin looks lifeless, especially on the cheeks and around the eyes. It may lack elasticity, with accentuated fine lines and wrinkles. In more severe cases, itching and burning may occur. Extremely dry skin shows signs of cracking.
Dehydrated skin can be genetically determined or triggered by factors such as climate, cosmetics and medications. This can be a natural consequence of the aging process as sebum production decreases.

– no shine
– presence of reddened and scaly areas
– small pores
– low level of elasticity
– early appearance of light furrows and wrinkles

Combination skin is quite dry in some parts and oily in others. Combination facial skin tends to be dry on the cheeks and around the eyes, and oily in the T-zone (nose, forehead, chin). Dry and oily areas require different care. This skin type is very common.

– the combination between oily and dry skin makes it difficult to maintain
– the areas around the chin, nose and forehead can be very oily, and the rest of the face – too dry.
– large pores and tendency to the appearance of blackheads

Mature skin – As we age, the skin’s sebum production decreases, often leading to increased dryness, the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and flaking. The skin may look lifeless and itch. Another problem is hyperpigmentation, especially in individuals with a long history of sun exposure.

“Sensitive skin” is not exactly a skin type, but rather a symptom caused by various factors. People tend to describe their skin as “sensitive” if it often reacts with redness, itching, burning, or dryness to topical skin care products. The causes of this condition can be a hidden skin disease, allergies, contact with irritants in certain products or incorrect use of cosmetic products.

– presence of scaly and red areas
– tendency to rashes and irritations
Sensitive skin can also fall into all other categories!


How to determine your skin type at home?

In order to assign your skin to the correct category at home and to more accurately choose cosmetic products, we offer you the following procedure:

  1. Gently wash and pat dry your face;
  2. Wait for two hours;
  3. Finally, take a few thin paper towels and press them against your face,
  4. Check whether oiliness is observed on the paper or not.
– If there are no marks left on the paper, no feeling of tightness and no visible scaly areas, your skin is Normal.
– If there are no marks left on the paper, but your face becomes scaly or feels dry and tight, your skin is Dehydrated.
– If oily traces remain on the cloth from all parts of the face, your skin is Oily.
– If the oily traces are only from the T-zone, and the cheeks remain clean, your skin is Combination.

If you don’t have time or think you won’t be able to do it, we have an easy solution. Visit Personal Diagnostics by Lali and we will do it for you!


Why is it important to take care of our skin daily?

The skin is a complex and highly efficient organ that protects our body and contributes to its attractiveness. It is also a barrier and intermediate for outgoing and incoming substances. If the functions of the skin are disturbed, this can lead to discomfort, sensitivity, excessive or insufficient oiliness, etc.
Few people are blessed with perfect normal skin. But even it has difficulty maintaining it’s healthy appearance, with the annual change of seasons, external stressors, environmental influences and increasing pollution, and needs daily hydration and protection.


When should we worry about our skin health?

You know your own skin best! A change in appearance or the way you feel is an indicator of some disorder in the body. Most daily changes are due to the different level of hormones during the month/season and the cosmetics used, but if you experience discomfort or redness for more than a few days, seek dermatological help.


This is an editorial prepared especially for you by Lali.
All rights reserved!

Lautenschläger Layer per layer – the structure of the skin. Beauty Forum. 2011. 
Pons-Guiraud A. Sensitive skin: a complex and multifactorial syndrome. J Cos
Dermatol. 2004. 
Proksch E, Brandner JM, Jensen JM. The skin: an indispensable barrier. Exp Dermatol 17. 2008. 
Madison, Kathi C. Barrier Function of the Skin: La Raison d’Être of the Epidermis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 121
Saint-Martory C, Roguedas-Contios AM, Sibaud V, Degouy A, Schmitt AM, Misery L. Sensitive skin is not limited to the face. Br J Dermatol 158. 
Wilkinson PF, Millington R. Skin. 2009. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Skin care (analysis). 2007.
Jablonski NG. Skin: a Natural History. 2006. Berkeley: University of California Press
Photo: Anna Shvets

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